Tag Archives: breakfast

Smaug Really Just Needed Vitamin D

So there’s a state of emergency over most of the east coast because of the storm we’re experiencing. It’s not a fun time to be living in Boston, unless you happen to work right next to a cappuccino/latte/hot chocolate machine–which I do. Becca: 1, Snow Storm: 0. Shout-out to C3 for being an awesome place to work!

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However, no matter the quantity of hot beverages you may be imbibing this time of the year, storms do have one unavoidable affect–they can cause vitamin D deficiency. Lacking this nutrient is one of the causes of–aptly named–SAD, or Seasonal Affective Disorder (1). You may also be more susceptible to a host of other diseases, including diabetes, psoriasis, gum disease, and even cancer (2).

On top of that, British researchers are on a mission to prove that fictional villains really just need more sunshine and fish. 

In the recently published report, “The Hobbit–An Unexpected Deficiency,” Joseph and Nicholas Hopkinson, of the National Institute for Health Research, Biomedical Research Unit, at Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and Imperial College London, analyzed the sunlight exposure and diet of the characters of The Hobbit, by J.R.R. Tolkien, and compared their findings to the characters’ evilness and success in battles. Their conclusion was that the lack of dietary and environmental vitamin D intake caused the troubles of characters such as Bilbo, Gollum, and the Goblin empire. The Hopkinsons also theorize that the Wood Elves are less potent than the High Elves because they dwell in caves, rather than in a sun lit city.

The depression, moodiness, and lack of cognitive skills shown by those who dwell in the dark could well be attributed to the lack of vitamin D in their diet. If Smaug would only scoop up some fish, and lay off the virgin maidens, Laketown would get some peace.

So are you feeling a bit like a cranky dragon lately? Here’s the top 5 ways to eat your vitamin D:

Mushrooms

mushrooms

Oily fish like salmon, trout, and orange roughy

salmon

Egg Yolk

egg

 

 

 

Swiss Cheese

swiss

Liver

liver

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What To Do After A Binge

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It’s Halloween! Some view it as the night the “candy season” is finally over, but really, it’s the first holiday of the winter season–the binging is just beginning.

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All of us, except for a few gastronomical saints, will indulge at some point or another this season, and that’s ok! There’s more to these shared meals than nutrition and caloric value–it’s a time to bond with family, get a little giddy with some drinks, and make some memories.

If you want to keep you weight in check this holiday season, here’s the ideal “day after” plan [I don’t always do this, but when I do, I feel much better…and the scale moves a lot less]. This plan is assuming that the binge was mainly carbohydrates since… well… it’s a lot harder to really overeat pure fat and protein:

Binge Recovery

Step one: Getting Home

Oh lordy. I’m so full, it hurts… 

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You get home. You know what you did and dammit, you don’t care. You’re an adult, you can eat an entire pie if you want to.

Or you feel immensely guilty.

Or you’re very drunk.

Step 2: Work out when you wake up

Ideally you worked out before you indulged. No matter how much you lifted, ran, climbed, or biked before you ate, though, it’s likely that your glycogen stores (in your muscles and liver) are full. They may already be overflowing, which means that the extra energy is being converted into the dreaded jiggle…

When you wake up you’ll probably feel bloated–that horrible feeling like your skin isn’t quite big enough anymore, and you’re uncomfortable in kind of a nonspecific way. Working out in a way that maximizes glycogen depletion will do some damage control and make you feel like yourself again.

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The simple principle is, the more energy you use, the less you’ll store–first and foremost, pick an exercise you aren’t going to quit after 10 minutes because you hate it. Going for a long walk will help if you can’t muster the will to do more. A long bike ride is a great choice. Running is fantastic fort his, and if you can do a HIIT work out, and/or get yourself to the gym to lift (high reps is best for this), even better. Explosive movements are the best, but moving in general is the best thing you can do right now.

Step 3: Drink a ton of water throughout the day

Back to that bloating feeling–know why you get it? For every molecule of glucose (pie, cake, pasta, ice cream, sweet drink mixers) your body stores, it stores two molecules of water. It has to do this, which means that the rest of your body has become dehydrated. Gulping water throughout the day, especially before, during, and after your workout, will help kill the lethargy.

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Step 4: Make the next meal low in carbohydrates

You’re already full up–make a point to have a low carb meal the next time you eat. Something classically “healthy” like a salad is great, because it also contains a lot of water, but an omelette, a bunless burger, or a lettuce wrap will work equally well.

Fiber will help you get rid of any garbage left in your digest tract a little faster.

It’s also a good idea to make your next few meals small to help your stretch stomach shrink back to its original size.

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Follow these steps and you should feel like your old self by the end of the day or the next day!

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Do Detox “Cleanse” Diets Work?

If you rounded up a group of people who had 10-20 pounds they were trying to lose, “do you wish you could lose it in a week? How about less than a month?” I guarantee you every one of them would answer yes.

This is the offering made by every detox cleanse diet. These “fad” “crash” diets have been made popular by celebrities, who face considerably pressure to make their body fit the director’s description of various characters. Beyonce made the “Lemonade Cleanse” famous when she lost 20 lbs in preparation for Dreamgirls. After shooting was over, however, she regained the weight rather quickly (Yahoo)–in general, we only see the dramatic losses, not the eventual regains in weight.

Are cleanse diets really worth it? Do they really “detoxify” your body? 

This is a rather broad question, so I’ll break it down into several points:

What is a detox diet?

It seems that almost every “detox” diet has a different definitely of what it truly means to “cleanse.” As a general rule, diets that claim you cannot properly cleanse your cells without their specially formulated product are probably not worth your while. Common sense dictates that if it’s something we need to do, then what we need to do it must occur naturally, not require a laboratory for manufacture.

Further, diets that claim you need a specific (naturally occurring) substance, such as apples, kale, or their great grandmother Hagatha’s tears of true joy, are also eliminated as bunk. Humans live throughout the world, and so far there have been few  deaths that resulted from a person dissolving into a “bag of puss.” (thanks for that visual, Raw Reform)

Essentially, if you’re looking for a diet that will “cleanse” your system, pick one that is either a water fast, or requires only a variety of produce to do.

As far as not for profit detox diets, their definition of the word seems to be:

  1. Resting of internal organs, especially the kidneys and liver
  2. Eliminating harmful foods from the diet
  3. Hydration
  4. Encouragement of toxin expulsion through the intestines, kidneys, lungs, and skin
  5. Improved blood circulation

The Benefits

The benefits of a diet such as a water fast, a juice fast, or eating only raw produce for a period of time are very similar (or identical, in the case of water fasting) to that of any kind of fasting.

As I mentioned in a previous article, fasting induces some physical reactions similar to those that exercise creates, as well as many others. The scholarly literature goes back into the 19th century, but in the two most sought after are usually:

  1. Rapid weight loss (though maintaining this loss requires a considerable change in lifestyle once the fast is broken)
  2. Increased insulin sensitivity (again, lifestyle must be maintained after fast to keep this benefit)

These benefits will also be seen in a “detox” diet, as they almost unanimously lower calories into the realm of a “partial fast” (under 600 kcal a day).

Detox diets also remove junk food, psychologically reactive chemicals (such as alcohol and caffeine), and most–if not all–of the more difficult to digest foods, such as fibrous produce, meat, and fat. Perhaps the most logical reason that dieters feel “clean” during and after “detoxing” is that by removing most or all of their food sources, they also eliminate possible allergens, or foods that they are sensitive to, such as wheat, soy, lactose, eggs, and peanuts (as well as many more uncommon sources of irritation).

If you’re experimenting with detoxing and feel less enflamed (not to be confused with bloated, which is caused by excessive sugar or salt, but not an usually by an allergy) than you did previously, they would be wise to experiment with removing single ingredients from their diet to expedite the process of finding what food is causing discomfort. 
 

The Risks

As with fasting, low calorie diets or diets intended to put you in a state of ketosis (cleanse diets can be both or either) have the potential to upset your electrolyte balance, which can cause cramping, irritability, and lethargy. Seniors, children, adolescents, and women who are pregnant or nursing should definitely not attempt these, and others should keep in mind that if they experience these symptoms they should address them (a sports drink and a more varied diet usually does the trick!)

Reducing your calories should be approached cautiously, especially when under 800 calories. Your blood sugar will most likely drop drastically, which, depending on your current health, could lead to extreme fatigue, dizziness, and possible faintness. If you begin this diet, start on a Friday night, for a weekend that is free of plans, especially those that require cognitive skills and driving.

Also, expect to spend a considerable amount of time in the restroom, as many “cleanse” diets are made up primarily of laxatives and diuretics.

The Myth

Overall, detox and cleanse diets can have a similar effect on your system as a prolonged fast, either traditional or modified (under 600 calories daily).

However, if you’re feeling “toxic,” there is absolutely no scientific proof that these regimens will have any effect. Your body already has a fantastic waste management system, in the form of your kidneys, liver, intestines, and cardiovascular system. 

 

Have you ever done a cleanse diet?

Do you know anyone who has completed one of these regimens?

Have you ever been tempted to try one?

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Does Breakfast Really Matter?

Referencing:
High Caloric Intake at Breakfast vs. Dinner Differentially Influences Weight Loss of Overweight and Obese Women
Daniela Jakubowicz, Maayan Barnea, Julio Wainstein, Oren Froy

Who is this study about?

This study is one of the few that objectively measures the effect of caloric timing for females with metabolic syndrome.

A person who is suffering from at least three of these five symptoms can be said to have metabolic syndrome:

  • Large Waist Size (for men: 40+ in., for women: 35+ in.)
  • High Triglycerides (150 mg/dL unmedicated)
  • Low HDL, or “good” cholesterol (for men: 40 mg/dL or less, for women: 50 mg/dL or less, unmedicated)
  • High Blood Pressure (135/85 mm Hg or higher, unmedicated)
  • High Fasting Glucose Level (100+ mg/dL)

The syndrome isn’t uncommon–as of 2010 over 34% of adult Americans have it.

This study’s aim was to show if there was any notable relationship between blood sugar and circadian rhythm, also known as your “brain clock”, which would affect weight loss.

What type of people were excluded from the study?

This study did not include participants who

  • Had diabetes, or any abnormal internal organ function.
  • Were pregnant or lactating.
  • Were taking any type of medication that affects glucose, insulin, reproductive hormones.
  • Were previously dieting

That doesn’t mean that the study cannot be applied to those types of individuals, but it should be kept in mind that, as with any dietary change, results may vary.

What did participants do?

93 Women (20-65 years old) with a BMI over 32.4 with metabolic syndrome were fed 1400 calories every day for 12 weeks. The group was split into two smaller groups:

  • BF – This group received most of their calories at breakfast (700 calories), less at lunch (500 calories), and not much more than a snack at dinner (200 calories).
  • DF – This group received a snack at breakfast (200 calories), a small meal at lunch (500 calories), and most of their calories at dinner (700 calories).

The women reported their meal intake from home with instructions to make note of everything they ate.

They were instructed to follow this meal plan, with some substitutions of similar nutritional value allowed:

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Their hunger, or appetite scores, were assessed before and 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, and three hours after each meal by marking somewhere between 0 and 100 on a vertical scale.

A dietitian met with each woman twice a week.

Weight, blood pressure, and waist circumference were recorded every 2 weeks by the same person.

Shortcomings of the study

The women reported their meals from home. This is a pretty big problem to me, as it’s not uncommon for people to believe that “just a bite” isn’t worth recording. Also, participants were asked to adhere to a specific macro breakdown (fat, protein, carbohydrates), which is another challenge to record.

Participants were only withdrawn from the study if they exceeded their calorie goal (1540 calories or more) over 42% of the time, or over 3 days a week on average.

Activity levels were not recorded–participants were simply asked to stay at the same activity level they had been at beforehand, which was sedentary. They were only asked to note any change in activity level ever 2 weeks. I’m not sure if I agree with this, as “sedentary” can mean many things. Often times when calories are reduced, you move even less than normal–not fidgeting, needing more motivation to get up to grab a cup of coffee, etc. I would have been happier with this study if participants at least wore a pedometer.

Results

Finally, what you’ve been waiting for!

The women who ate their biggest meal first (BF) ended the study with a 10% drop in body weight. The women who ate their biggest meal at dinner had a 5% drop.

The BF group also had a more significant drop in waist size, as well as their fasting glucose and insulin.

Conclusion

This study does suggest that breakfast is, in fact, the most important meal of the day, for those who eat the Standard American Diet, which is low fat, high carbohydrate, moderate protein.

What I’d love to see is another study that follows the same principle of eating calories early in the day, but with a ketosis-inducing macro nutrient breakdown.

After reading this study in its entirety, I’m not convinced that it’s the calories that affect weight loss as much as it is the timing of carbohydrate intake, or blood sugar spiking foods.

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